Heliocentric Earth Versus Geocentric Earth Based on Observation:
Ancient ChineseTheory of a Flat Earth

The  Chinese believed in the earth being flat and that an umbrella-like covering surrounded it which was similar to the beliefs of the Greek, East Indian, Egyptians, Norse and Germanic as well as the aboriginal people of the Americas.

The Chinese astronomers believed that heaven takes its body from the yang, so it is round and in motion, and that the earth takes its body from the Yin, so it is flat and quiescent.The brilliant astronomers of China held this unchanging belief until the Jesuit missionaries came to China  in the 17th century.  

Can These Numbers Even Be Possible?

The modern view of the globe or heliocentric theory is that the earth is sitting on it's axis at a 23.5 degree tilt, while spinning at over 1,000 miles per hour, while orbiting the sun at a blinding 67,000 miles per hour, while our entire solar system orbits around the milky way's galactic core at almost 500,000 miles per hour.

Then the milky way which nestles earth and our solar system is further careening across the expanding universe away from the big bang at over 2.2 million miles per hour so that in total we are hurling through space at about 2.7 million miles per hour. Yet it feels as if we are sitting still.  Go figure.....

Only Two Schools of Thought Have Ever Existed

When you think about it there have only existed two schools of thought regarding the cosmology of our earth. The geocentric model of a flat earth that existed from the beginning of man, embraced by all cultures and enduring up until around 500 years ago and the heliocentric earth as a globe model which has been around a relatively short period of time.

Right now as you read this there is a growing resurgence in the flat earth model which is being embraced by people around the entire world. I attribute this to the information age which allows anyone near a computer to be able to use calculations and scientific concepts as easily as doing a Google search and then disseminating their findings to many.

Combine this with a birthing within all people around the globe of desiring nothing less than living their authentic self and you can see the perfect storm for the crashing of the quack science of the heliocentric model in favor of the common sense geocentric model that has worked since the beginning of man's story.

See Some Common Sense Science and you Decide

Observational fact
The Sun in the sky during the summer in the Northern hemisphere above the Tropic of Cancer travels in a southern arc across the sky which is a West-West-South direction until noon and then a West-West-North direction until midnight as this illustration below shows:

Heliocentric theory:

The Earth spins in an anti-clockwise direction if viewed looking down from the North Pole. It spins on its axis just over 360° in 24 hours and travels around the sun in one year. It tilts 23.44° on its axis so that at the height of the summer solstice one hemisphere will be nearer to the sun than the other, and in 6 months on the other side of the sun, this same hemisphere will be further away during winter solstice as this diagram demonstrates:

So to recap, the heliocentric theory states that the Northern hemisphere above the Tropic of Cancer in the summer solstice tilts towards the sun at 23.44° as this illustration below shows:

So far so good. The sun is seen to travel in the sky East to West because the Earth is rotating in the opposite direction West to East. Now in the above diagram imagine any location in the Northern hemisphere (NH) above the Tropic of Cancer as it rotates anti-clockwise. At daybreak the NH is rotating in a downwards direction East-East-South until noon where it reverses and travels upwards East-East-North until midnight. The Sun is seen to travel in the sky in the opposite direction which is West-West-North until noon and then West-West-South until midnight. This is a northern arc, as the flipped illustration below demonstrates.

As we can see, this is EXACTLY opposite to how the Sun is seen to traverse the sky. No matter what the season, the Sun in the Northern hemisphere above the Tropic of Cancer NEVER travels in a northern arc… EVER… not in winter, fall, spring or summer!

If it does not tilt, there is no way heliocentric theory can explain the seasons. This means that it is the movement of the Sun which must create the seasons, making the rotation of the Earth redundant; unless of course it is a mixture of both. It is much, much more likely the Earth does not rotate at all (which is actually what the science says), especially since there is no observational evidence whatsoever for a rotating Earth.

Where is the Constant Wind?

The density of the Earth has been calculated at 5,515 kilometers.

The density of air is 1.204 kilometers at room temperature, 4580 times less dense than the Earth.

A denser solid object does not carry a less dense gas along with it when it moves. This is self-evident as it is the basis of aerodynamics as shown in the video below.

A moving solid object of say 100 kilometers would leave air/gas behind creating 100 kilometers of wind in the perceived opposite direction as in this example above of a moving car.  

Heliocentric theory states that the Eartrotates at 1675 kilometers per hour at the equator, 1049 kilometers per hour in London, and 231 kilometers per hour in Alert, Canada. This rotation would cause winds of almost equal speeds on the Earth’s surface… constantly.

The fastest wind speed known to man is a F-5  tornado with wind speeds of 420-511 kilometers per hour.  The 1999 tornado in Oklahoma which killed 38 people and destroyed 8000 homes traveled at 486 kilometers per hour, the devastation of which we can see below.

If 486 kilometer winds did this, what would 1675 kilometers do?

There is nowhere on Earth that has a constant wind speed of between 1675 kilometers per hour or even  231 kilometers per hour. If there were, nobody living below Greenland could venture outside. We would be all living underground in caves.

Sometimes there are days of no wind, sometimes a mild breeze. The wind travels in all kinds of directions, sometimes changing by the minute. Clouds move with the wind and can travel in any direction, but mostly go from West to East. This contradicts heliocentric theory as the Earth is supposed to rotate West to East, which would create winds going in the opposite direction East to West.

Hovering, Flying and Falling

Even more obvious is the fact that the Earth does not rotate under hovering objects. A helicopter which hovers above the ground at ANY height from 1 meter all the way to its upper limit of around 8000 meters NEVER experiences the ground traveling 231 kilometers per hour to 1675 kilometers per hour West to East, or in any direction.

Observe that the Earth is not rotating as the helicopter hovers for just over one minute. If this helicopter were hovering say in Canada, where the Earth rotates the slowest, so lets say at 231 kilometers per hour, then we should be able to observe a movement of almost 4 miles, yet we observe the earth not moving at all.

What About Pesky Airplanes?

The same applies to those machines which traverse the sky, such as airplanes. The only differential between a one-way and return flight is changes in wind speed and direction.

It is the headwinds and tailwinds that cause a change in travel times. A mere 65 mph wind is more that enough to cause a difference in travel time of five hours when the traveling distance is long. 

Although the rotation of the earth SHOULD effect the travel time, we will see in this example that it does not.

A flight along the equator from Maldives to Singapore and back fits the bill. Singapore Airlines has two flights come up. Maldives to Singapore, west to east, takes 4 hours and 30 minutes and the return flight from Singapore to Maldives, east to west, takes 4 hours and 45 minutes. 

The earth rotates 1675 kilometers per hour, in a west to east direction at the equator. These two locations as 3388 kilometers apart. A Boeing 777 travels at 885 kilometers per hour. 

Flying from Singapore to the Maldives would take about and hour including take and landing if the Earth were rotating under the plane.

The return flight from east to west would take much longer as the plane can only fly half as fast as a rotation of 1675 kilometers per hour. So it would take considerable longer to fly the return flight. Yet the airlines quote just an extra 15 minutes longer flying time on the return flight. 

Maldives to Singapore

Free Fall Jump But No Apparant Rotation of Earth

Let's take a look at Felix Baumgartner and his world record free-fall jump which he reached from a starting altitude of 38,969 miles high.

It took him 2 1/2  hours to ascend. His descent took 4:19 minutes free falling to the ground and then 7 minutes of parachuting the rest of the way down. 

Doing the math, if the earth rotates at the rate of 1000 hours per hour, then that is equal to approximately 16 miles per minute. If it took a combined total of approximately 11 minutes for Eric to touch ground from his starting point, then the earth should have rotated to the tune of 176 miles as he was pummeling back to the ground.

Yet Eric landed within 1 mile of his New Mexico jumping off point. At 176 miles of supposed earth rotation, he should have landed in another state at the very least, not just a measly 1 mile away from where he jumped. 

Stellar Parallax-Measuring Fixed Points

 The starrevolve 360° in 24 hours in an anti-clockwise fashion around the north polar star in the northern hemisphere, and clockwise around the southern star in the southern hemisphere. Photographers take photos with very long shutter speeds to show this effect.

This, you may think, is a good case for a rotating Earth; but on it’s own it is also a good case for a geocentric one, as it demonstrates that either the Earth is moving or the heavens are.

However, after 6 months, those EXACT same stars are at the EXACT same location, as can be seen with the naked eye, at which they had been 6 months previously. The annual change in the position of stars in the sky is called stellar parallax. You can demonstrate this lack of parallax by following this experiment devised by Samuel Rowbotham of Zetetic Astronomy, 1881.

Take two carefully-bored metallic tubes, not less than six feet in length, and place them one yard asunder, on the opposite sides of a wooden frame, or a solid block of wood or stone: so adjust them that their centres or axes of vision shall be perfectly parallel to each other. Now, direct them to the plane of some notable fixed star, a few seconds previous to its meridian time. Let an observer be stationed at each tube and the moment the star appears in the first tube let a loud knock or other signal be given, to be repeated by the observer at the second tube when he first sees the same star. A distinct period of time will elapse between the signals given. The signals will follow each other in very rapid succession, but still, the time between is sufficient to show that the same star is not visible at the same moment by two parallel lines of sight when only one yard asunder. A slight inclination of the second tube towards the first tube would be required for the star to be seen through both tubes at the same instant. Let the tubes remain in their position for six months; at the end of which time the same observation or experiment will produce the same results–the star will be visible at the same meridian time, without the slightest alteration being required in the direction of the tubes: from which it is concluded that if the Earth had moved one single yard in an orbit through space, there would at least be observed the slight inclination of the tube which the difference in position of one yard had previously required. But as no such difference in the direction of the tube is required, the conclusion is unavoidable, that in six months a given meridian upon the Earth’s surface does not move a single yard, and therefore, that the Earth has not the slightest degree of orbital motion.

Traditionally, stellar parallax has been notoriously difficult to measure with even the best of modern equipment.

The angles involved in these calculations are very small and thus difficult to measure. The nearest star to the Sun (and thus the star with the largest parallax), Proxima Centauri, has a parallax of 0.7687 ± 0.0003 arc sec.

There are 3,600 arc seconds in 1 degree, 180 of which cover the sky at night. No wonder we can’t see any movement with the naked eye. Even so, movement for only a tiny fraction of the stars can be measured at all even by modern equipment!

In 1989, the satellite Hipparcos was launched primarily for obtaining parallaxes and proper motions of nearby stars, increasing the reach of the method tenfold. Even so, Hipparcos is only able to measure parallax angles for stars up to about 1,600 light-years away, a little more than one percent of the diameter of the Milky Way Galaxy.

There are an estimated 100 to 200 billion galaxies in the universe  each with up to 100 trillion stars! So being able to detect movement in 1% of the stars of our own galaxy is a miniscule amount. 

This is a big problem for heliocentric theory which states that every 24 hours the Earth rotates on its axis at 1675 kilometers per hour, revolving around the Sun at 107,000 kilometers per hour, which in turn moves around the center of the galaxy at 900,000 kilometers per hour, which moves in the universe at 2,160,000 kilometers per hour.

Apart from the atmosphere disappearing at these speeds, how is there no stellar parallax, especially considering that all the other stars and galaxies are revolving around each other and the Earth as well. The sky must be a right mes. Each new day must bring a brand new unique constellation in the sky at night with some new stars getting nearer so they can be seen with the naked eye and some traveling further away and disappearing never to return for thousands or millions of years.

Before we move on, this lack of stellar parallax is the reason why advocates of heliocentric theory give the unbelievably enormous distances the heavenly bodies must be from Earth. They can’t measure it! The stars must be thousands and millions of light years away (with the Milky Way 100,000 light years across, 1 light year being 9.46 trillion kilometers!) because there is no (or little) detectable stellar parallax; otherwise heliocentric theory would be definitely wrong.

It is clear from Euclid’s geometry that the effect would be undetectable if the stars were far enough away, but for various reasons such gigantic distances involved seemed entirely implausible: it was one of Tycho Brahe’s principal objections to Copernican heliocentrism that in order for it to be compatible with the lack of observable stellar parallax, there would have to be an enormous and unlikely void between the orbit of Saturn and the eighth sphere (the fixed stars).

Not only is there no evidence for such astronomical distances, but we have now proven that the stars are approximately 4000 miles away!

How do we know it is not the heavens or “space” which moves above us, instead of the Earth, which causes both the rotation of the stars and any of their hard-to-detect parallax. We now know it is the former, thanks to an experiment in 1871 by Astronomer Royal, George Airy; which is this:

If stellar parallax is too small to see with the naked eye, then why not artificially increase it. If the Earth rotates at the same speed constantly, then by slowing the light down (by filling the telescope with water), the angle of star movement would increase. If stellar parallax increased then the telescope would have to be tilted more to see the same star and prove a rotating Earth once and for all.

And guess what? As confirmed by others, the most careful measurements gave the same angle for a telescope with water as for one filled with air. This is called “Airy’s failure”. It proved the rotation of the heavens, not Earth, which moves stars.

The angle stayed the same, proving that the Earth does not rotate

The heliocentric advocates were now desperate. What was needed was another observable experiment to still offer the possibility of a rotating Earth. Enter Foucault’s pendulum in 1885. This pendulum swings back and forth, each swing moving slightly to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere until, at the poles, one full circle is achieved in 24 hours. It doesn’t move left or right at all at the equator.

Foucault Pendulum in California
Not to scale, but illustrating the movement

As you have noticed, this is the same phenomenon as the stars rotating every 24 hours around the polar star, which was proved not to be caused by a rotating Earth thanks to George Airy. Unfortunately for the heliocentric supporters, Foucault’s pendulum also had a problem. In 1954 and 1959, Maurice Allais noticed that during a solar eclipse, which lasted 2 and a half hours, the angle of the pendulum changed dramatically by 13.5°. This has been repeatedly observed with positive results on most of the subsequent eclipses, which obviously means that the pendulum isn’t registering the Earth’s rotation, but the motion of something else instead.

With Airy’s failure proving that the Earth does not rotate, the heliocentric theorists needed to quickly show with no further doubt that the Earth rotated. Enter two staunch supporters of heliocentricity, Albert Michelson and Edward Morley, who in 1887 set up a device which split up light: one beam in the direction of the Earth’s rotation, and one at right angles. The two light beams then recombined and hit a photographic plate. The difference is speed of the two beams would create an interference pattern. They expected to measure a speed of 30 km/s as that was the speed of the Earth’s supposed rotation, but instead registered a variable difference of between 1 and 10 km/s each time the experiment was repeated. They called this a “null” result. This proves that the Earth is not rotating and at the same time proved the existence of the ether.

Gosh, the traveling light wasn’t rotating with the Earth. Who’d a thunk it

It didn’t stop there, Georges Sagnac, and Henry Gale conducted similar experiments, but on a rotating platform, which again demonstrated the existence of the ether, already proved by default in 1871 and 1885 by combining the results from George Airy and Foucault’s pendulum, and also in 1887 by the Michelson-Morley experiment.

How do you think the advocates of heliocentric theory responded? Why, they made something up of course! What else could they do but invent another wild theory to play down these experimental results and lead us further into the cesspit of fallacy. Enter showbiz academic of the 20th century, Einstein and the special theory of relativity.

was invented to make sure all these experiments still gave heliocentric theory a chance of being correct. It needed objects to shrink to a specific size in direct proportion to its speed. These objects weren’t measured! The concept had never been observed at all. It was metaphysical only. But it had to be correct, otherwise the unthinkable would be true.

The rescue operation was performed by means of a purely metaphysical concept lifted directly from Professors Fitzgerald and Lorentz, who had also been trying to explain the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment, and renamed by him the Special Theory of Relativity. What was suggested was that if the dimensions of an object in motion were assumed to shrink exactly in proportion to the speed at which it was traveling by exactly the necessary amount, mathematical calculations could be made to show that the Earth was in motion after all. No one has ever seen an object shrink as a result of being in motion, and indeed one of the world’s leading authorities on relativity,Dr. Herbert Dingle, was later to dismiss the theory of relativity as metaphysical nonsense with no basis on what could be observed.

Making up a new branch of mathematics to explain the results of experiments that disagrees with your worldview does not a proof make! As a J.J. Thomson once said:

We have Einstein’s space, de Sitter’s space, expanding universes, contracting universes, vibrating universes, mysterious universes. In fact the pure mathematician may create universes just by writing down an equation, and indeed if he is an individualist he can have a universe of his own.

However, when you make stuff up not based on anything in the real world, it is bound to run into trouble.

Ironically, when Special Relativity failed due to its internal contradictions, Einstein had to invent General Relativity to shore up the façade, and in the process he had to take back the very two foundations he had discarded in Special Relativity, namely, (a) that nothing can exceed the speed of light and (b) the existence of ether. In the end, Einstein’s theories were a mass of contradictions which are covered over by obtuse mathematical equations.

Despite this nonsense, the heliocentric “authorities” pushed it through with all their media power and academic might so that once this new mathematics was firmly established, they had carte blanche to sneak in other bad “science” when experimental observations went against them, like black holes, dark matter, wormholes and other such unobservable and unverifiable nonsense. The worst offence though was trying to tie in the Coriolis effect of a rotating Earth with observable atmospheric phenomena. The Coriolis effect is an optical illusion whereby an object traveling in a straight line is seen to be moving in a curved one instead because the observer is on a rotating platform.